Access to data is an important advocacy tool because it provides the public with information about areas where schools or districts need to improve that they wouldn’t otherwise know. To achieve this end, ESSA requires states and districts to publish annual report cards with information about the state as a whole and all districts and schools within the state. Most of this information must be separated (or “disaggregated”) by student characteristics, including major racial and ethnic groups, family income, disability status, and language status. Some data must also be disaggregated by gender, foster care status, homeless status, military connected status, and migrant status. The data that must be reported includes:
Details of the state accountability system, including which schools were identified for Comprehensive Support and
Improvement and Targeted Support and Improvement;
Results on all accountability indicators (such as student achievement and high school graduation); and
Opportunity measures (such as Advanced Placement/International Baccalaureate/ dual enrollment, suspension and expulsion, chronic absenteeism, educator qualifications, and per-pupil expenditures).